We can use triple integrals and spherical coordinates to solve for the volume of a solid sphere. To convert from rectangular coordinates to spherical coordinates, we use a set of spherical conversion formulas.

Read MoreConsider the fact though that pulling one sample from a population could produce a statistic that isn’t a good estimator of the corresponding population parameter. To correct for this, instead of taking just one sample from the population, we’ll take lots and lots of samples, and create a sampling distribution of the sample mean.

Read MoreA **discrete random variable** is a variable that can only take on discrete values. For example, if you flip a coin twice, you can only get heads zero times, one time, or two times; you can’t get heads 1.5 times, or 0.31 times.

The population of a species that grows exponentially over time can be modeled by P(t)=Pe^(kt), where P(t) is the population after time t, P is the original population when t=0, and k is the growth constant.

Read MoreWe can use integrals to find the surface area of the three-dimensional figure that’s created when we take a function and rotate it around an axis and over a certain interval. The formulas we use to find surface area of revolution are different depending on the form of the original function and the axis of rotation.

Read MoreThis is the rule we use when we’re dividing one exponential expression by another exponential expression. The quotient rule tells us that we have to subtract the exponent in the denominator from the exponent in the numerator, but the bases have to be the same.

Read MoreBefore you can use the distance, rate, and time formula, D=RT, you need to make sure that your units for the distance and time are the same units as your rate. If they aren’t, you’ll need to change them so you’re working with the same units.

Read MoreSometimes we’ll be asked for the radius and interval of convergence of a Taylor series. In order to find these things, we’ll first have to find a power series representation for the Taylor series.

Read MoreThe main idea in inverse variation is that as one variable increases the other variable decreases, which means that if x is increasing y is decreasing, and if x is decreasing y is increasing. The number k is a constant so it’s always the same number throughout the inverse variation problem.

Read MoreThe circumference of a circle is the distance around the circle (its perimeter). You can find the circumference if you know either the radius or the diameter.

Read MoreThe gradient vector formula gives a vector-valued function that describes the function’s gradient everywhere. If we want to find the gradient at a particular point, we just evaluate the gradient function at that point.

Read MoreA **reflection** is a type of transformation that flips a figure over a line. The line is called the **line of reflection**, or the mirror line, and the line of reflection can be horizontal, vertical, or diagonal.

With any hypothesis test, we need to state the null and alternative hypotheses, then determine the level of significance. We’ve already covered these first two steps, and now we want to learn how to calculate the test statistic, which will depend on whether we’re running a two-tail test or a one-tail test.

Read MoreLaws of logarithms (or laws of logs) include product, quotient, and power rules for logarithms, as well as the general rule for logs (and the change of base formula we’ll cover in the next lesson), can all be used together, in any combination, in order to solve log problems.

Read MoreU-substitution in definite integrals is just like substitution in indefinite integrals except that, since the variable is changed, the limits of integration must be changed as well. If you don’t change the limits of integration, then you’ll need to back-substitute for the original variable at the end.

Read MoreExponents are a tool we can use to write numbers in a simpler way. An exponent is a little number that you write above and to the right of another number, and it tells you how many times to multiply the base number by itself.

Read MoreThe comparison test for convergence lets us determine the convergence or divergence of the given series by *comparing* it to a similar, but simpler comparison series. We’re usually trying to find a comparison series that’s a geometric or p-series, since it’s very easy to determine the convergence of a geometric or p-series.

When we talk about unit price, what we’re really talking about is the “price per unit” of a product (the price per pound of tomatoes or the price per quart of milk). This is the math that helps us compare the prices of things.

Read MoreWhen two three-dimensional surfaces intersect each other, the intersection is a curve. We can find the vector equation of that intersection curve using three steps.

Read MoreIn order to model sales decline with the exponential decay equation, the decline must have a constantly and exponentially rate of decline. If it does, we can use our standard exponential change equation.

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